Around 287 and 212 BC, lived a Greek mathematician by the name of Archimedes. He came up with theories in his mind, but wanted to prove his theories to be right, so he made experiments to give proof that his theories worked. He was an inventor and astronomer as well. One of his inventions was the Archimedes screw or Water Screw, which is still used to this day to lift water for irrigation.

Archimedes is perhaps to be the greatest mathematician of all time. He came up with the mathematical method of exhaustion to calculate the space under an arc. He also came up with formulas to calculate volumes, just to name a few. He designed siege weapons, siege engines and other various contraptions. He even came up with an idea to use multiple mirrors on land, to concentrate sunlight to burn ships at sea. That idea was not practical, but it goes to show, he was always thinking.

When he was alive he was not known as a mathematician, but evidence suggests that he had constant correspondence with the mathematicians of Alexandria, Egypt. He was murdered by a Roman soldier, whose protection he was under. There was no apparent reason for the slaying. Recent discoveries of the writings of Archimedes, recently shed light on the Archimedes the mathematician. He even has a crater on the moon named after him.